Possevino was not constructing something new and unheard of, such rumors circulated continuously in the court and government of Poland from at least the 1560’s until the end of the Time of Troubles. The modern scholarship tends to exonerate Boris of any role in the prince's death. Their relationship further deteriorated when on November 15, the Tsar, after seeing his pregnant daughter-in-law wearing unconventionally light clothing, physically assaulted her. Cependant, Moscovia d’Antonio Possevino SJ, qui est la seule source contemporaine, n’a été publiée pour la première fois qu’en 1586. Ivan’s letter to King Stefan and his safe‑conduct for the Polish negotiators were dated October 27 : M. Koialovich, Dnevnik posledniago pokhoda Stefana Batoriia na Rossiiu (osada Pskova) i Diplomaticheskaia perepiska togo vremeni otnosiashchaiasia glavnym obrazom k zakliucheniiu Zapol´skago mira [A Diary of the Last Campaign of Stefan Batory against Russia (the Siege of Pskov) and the Diplomatic Correspondence of that Time Relatiing Mainly to the Conclusion of the Peace of Zapol´e] (SPb., 1867), 372‑373. His private letter to Galli of 22 January 1582 states that the story was a rumor he heard in the Polish camp near Pskov and that he did not believe it. The text also mentions (59) that a “commentarius” (singular) by Possevino about the customs of the Muscovites “is said to exist” (existare dicitur). This must have been the “first commentary” that was printed as the second. 15Possevino did discuss the tsarevich, or at least mention him, in his reports written in Venice where he stopped on the way from Moscow to Rome with the Russian ambassador, Iakov Molvianinov. While the Russians also toyed with peaceful means, such as getting the tsar or his sons elected Grand Duke of Lithuania or King of Poland, Ivan was waging war in the 1560’s and the Poles had to respond. The statement that he believed Ivan to always (sempre) incline toward peace also contradicts the statement in the Moscovia that the death of the tsarevich made Ivan listen “more mildly” (mitius) to what Possevino said to him. 14 Pierling, La Russie II, 160. 23 “Possewin... Moskiewskiego ad sidera tollit.” “Nie widziałem, prawi, w nim babariem takiej, jako ludzie mówią : kto sprawy jego ze sprawami wojska tego konferuje, daleko tam więtszą bojaźń Boga najdzie.” “Stąd mu się podoba Kniaź, że, co słowo, to się przeżegna a obrazków około niego pełno,” A. Czuczyński, ed., X. Jan Piotrowski, Dziennik wyprawy Stefana Batorego pod Psków (Krakow, 1894), 186. There is one brief note from Ivan IV to Nikita Romanovich Iur´ev and Andrei Shchelkalov from Alexandrova Sloboda on 12 November, 1581 reporting that he, the tsar, could not come to Moscow because of his son’s illness, but with no more details. (SPb., 1857, vol. The Tsar wanted his daughter-in-law to produce an heir very quickly, and this did not happen, so the Tsar banished her to a convent and got his son another bride. On the basis of this passage Godovikova believed Drenocki to be the source of the story, but Possevino himself reported in the Moscovia that they were kept in total isolation from the time of Possevino’s departure to his return.20 Drenocki could not be the source of the story, or if he was, then he too could only report rumors. I've killed my son!" The Polish commander Spytek Jordan wrote to Zamoyski on 26 December that he had “news from informants,” that everyone, even peasants, were saying that the son of the Grand Duke had died, that the tsar was very sad and giving alms to monasteries.24 Four days later Zamoyski wrote to Possevino briefly that “Here news has come to me that Ivan the first born son of the Grand Duke is dead.”25 On 2 January 1582 Zamoyski informed King Stefan: “From prisoners and spies at Novgorod I have understood that the eldest son of the Muscovite has died.”26 On January 6, 1582, Possevino wrote to Ptolomeo Galli, cardinal of Como, the Papal Secretary of State, that he had heard a rumor of the death of the tsarevich from Zamoyski, adding that the only remaining son was the one whose qualities he had described in his commentary on Muscovy, which must mean the “second” commentary of the Moscovia.27 A brief note from Zamoyski to the Danish prince Magnus on 8 January gave news of a victorious battle at Pskov and told another story with its sources: “[we learn] from the mob that 300 Muscovites have fallen, that the son of the Grand Duke died also there, and many were wounded and captured.”28 (Note that the rumor was that Ivan Ivanovich was fighting before Pskov, which was not the case.) On 15 May 1591, Dmitry died from a stab wound, under mysterious circumstances. [Peace Negotiations between Moscow and Poland sen 1581‑1582](Odessa, 1887), 39‑40. Jerome Horsey was not in Russia at the crucial moment and wrote his account much later. The few surviving Herberstein reports are in Joseph Fiedler, “Aktenstücke zu Siegmunds Freiherrn von Herberstein zweiter Mission nach Russland 1525‑26,” in Fr. Perhaps it does not make a large difference in itself, but the relations inside the family of a ruling monarch in the pre‑modern world should not be left as material for historical novelists. The dispatches were filled with information about the various factions among the Russian boyars and Peter’s conflicts with them. Tsarevich Dmitry Ivanovich of Russia (born 1582), "RUSSIA...Dmitry on the Blood | Travel Blog", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Dmitry_of_Uglich&oldid=983638647, Short description is different from Wikidata, Pages using infobox royalty with unknown parameters, Articles containing Russian-language text, All articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases, Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from February 2016, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WorldCat identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 15 October 2020, at 11:11. Ivan Ivanovich is believed to have been killed by his father, Ivan the Terrible. At age 27, Ivan was at least as well read as his father, and in his free time, wrote a biography on Antony of Siya. They were an important part of the political calculus in Russian‑Polish relations. The story of the 1581 death of tsarevich Ivan Ivanovich at the hands of his father, Ivan the Terrible, is a fixture of Russian history. To which the Muscovite, however, always showed himself to me to be inclined, so I do not know how much I should believe rumors thus constructed.]. The Tsar then got his son a third wife, Yelena Sheremeteva, who was found to be pregnant in October 1581. For the sixteenth century diplomatic publications we also normally have no unpublished archival sources. At age 27, Ivan was at least as well read as his father, and in his free time, wrote a biography on Antony of Siya. Geni requires JavaScript! He wrote that he published his Moscovia “urgentibus cordatissimis viris” (as most prudent men were urging). Ivan was born on … In that case Possevino was lying, since his letters make it clear that neither Zamasskii nor Polonskii were in Aleksandrova Sloboda during the crucial days in November, 1581, and he had only the two translators. 5 N.M. Karamzin, Istoriia gosudarstva Rossiskogo [History of the Russian State](reprint edition, M., 1989 [originally SPb., 1840’s]), kn. After the Tsar's death in 1584, his unprepared son Feodor I succeeded him with Godunov as de facto ruler. From a distance it was hard to make out the alliances and conflicts at the Russian court, as the Poles relied on interrogations of prisoners of war, deserters, and the information picked up by Polish diplomats in Moscow on their short and heavily guarded journeys to meet the tsar and his officials. Angered, Ivan's father struck him on the head with his scepter. He delivered several reports and proposals to the Venetian Doge and Senate, including a discourse on the need to form a league against the Turks, which had been one of the principal aims of Papal diplomacy. The critics of this version point out that Dmitry was Ivan's son from his fifth (or seventh) marriage, and thus illegitimate by the canon law (a maximum of three marriages are allowed in the Russian Orthodox Church). The third falsehood was that the death of the tsarevich was the result of a quarrel about the wife of the tsarevich and that it inclined Ivan to listen to Possevino’s peace proposals. 2, 275‑366 reverses the order of the two commentaries. Ivan Ivanovich's re­la­tion­ship with his fa­ther began to de­te­ri­o­rate dur­ing the later stages of the Livon­ian War. Due to her sterility, Ivan's father banished her to a convent. The result was the well‑known story of Ivan’s blow to the wife of the tsarevich and the subsequent quarrel and blow to the son. [Ivan the Terrible : Historicism and the Personality of the Ruler in the Art of the Fatherland in the 19‑20th Centuries] (SPb. Possevino had sent earlier on 9 December 1583 to the nuncio Bolognetti a copy of the “second commentary”, on Muscovy, again this must have been the same “second commentary” (on 1582) that appeared as the first commentary in the printed edition of 1586.

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