Russia was especially active in protecting Orthodox Christians and Slavic peoples under the control of the Ottoman Empire. The European Union (EU) promotes and insists upon respect for human and minority rights amongst its current and prospective members. Rights Pertaining to Minority Rights 2.1. 2. In most instances a minority group will be a numerical minority, but in others a numerical majority may also find itself in a minority-like or non-dominant position, such as Blacks under the apartheid regime in South Africa. Like children's rights, women's rights and refugee rights, minority rights are a legal framework designed to ensure that a specific group which is in a vulnerable, disadvantaged or marginalized position in society, is able to achieve equality and is protected from persecution. Hannum, Hurst, ed. Sign up to receive news, reports and job postings from Minority Rights Group International. Minority rights are individual and collective rights through which people belonging to national minority groups are entitled to enjoy their own culture, to use their own language, to profess and practice their own religion, to have the right to freedom of expression and assembly, to have equal opportunities to education and employment, and to enjoy full participation in public life. It is often stressed that the existence of a minority is a question of fact and that any definition must include both objective factors (such as the existence of a shared ethnicity, language or religion) and subjective factors (including that individuals must identify themselves as members of a minority). The political relevance of national minorities' protection is very high. Our overarching goal is to contribute to developing an inclusive, democratic and stable multi-ethnic society in Kosovo. Some of the most relevant ones are: - the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Persons Belonging to National or Ethnic, Religious and Linguistic Minorities (1992);– the two Council of Europe treaties, the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities (1995) and the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages (1992) and;– the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe’s (OSCE) Copenhagen Document (Art. Dezember 1867 (R.G.Bl. Minority rights as an essential element of the international human rights legal framework:States assume obligations and duties under international law to respect, to protect and to fulfil human rights, including minority rights. Šmihula, D. 2008. The difficulty in arriving at a widely acceptable definition lies in the variety of situations in which minorities live. Minority rights protect and promote a diverse and prosperous society: All societies in the modern world are multi-ethnic and multi-national. Furthermore, the word is interpreted differently in different societies. The Union's role vis-a-vis its minorities after the enlargement decade: a remaining share or a new part? 中文 | in Lezha and Prizren. Independent Expert on Minority Issues, U.N. Special Adviser on the Prevention of Genocide, Minority rights implemented at grassroot level, Hague recommendations regarding the education rights of national minorities & explanatory note, Oslo recommendation regarding the linguistic rights of national minorities, Language Education in Regional or Minority Languages, Compilation of reports and opinions concerning the protection of national minorities, Documents submitted to the Working Group on Minorities, African Commission on Human and Peoples' Rights, National Commission on Indigenous Peoples (Philippines), United Nations Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues, Confederation of Indigenous Nationalities of Ecuador, Coordinator of Indigenous Organizations of the Amazon River Basin, Indigenous Peoples Council on Biocolonialism, International Work Group for Indigenous Affairs, National Indigenous Organization of Colombia, Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization, Indigenous and Tribal Peoples Convention, 1989, Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, 2007,, Articles with German-language sources (de), Articles with dead external links from January 2018, Articles with permanently dead external links, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. But the "de-economisation of European integration", which started in the 1990s, is changing this situation. Русский | Despite the political failure, they remained the basis of international law. Minorities are all national cultural, ethnic, religious and linguistic minorities whose minority status has been recognised by national legislation or by internationally binding declarations as well as minorities that define and organise themselves as such. Subsequent human rights standards that codify minority rights include the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (Article 27), the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Persons Belonging to National or Ethnic, Religious and Linguistic Minorities, two Council of Europe treaties (the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities and the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages), and the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) Copenhagen Document of 1990. While the United Nations Minorities Declaration is devoted to national, ethnic, religious and linguistic minorities, it is also important to combat multiple discrimination and to address situations where a person belonging to a national or ethnic, religious and linguistic minority is also discriminated against on other grounds such as gender, disability or sexual orientation. Español | Such civil-rights advocates include the global women's-rights and global LGBT-rights movements, and various racial-minority rights movements around the world (such as the Civil Rights Movement in the United States). Minority rights are based on the recognition that minorities are in a vulnerable situation in comparison to other groups in society, namely the majority population, and aim to protect members of a minority group from discrimination, assimilation, prosecution, hostility or violence, as a consequence of their status. The European Centre for Minority Issues Kosovo (ECMI Kosovo) is the principal non-government organisation (NGO) engaged with the protection and promotion of the rights and interests of all minority communities in Kosovo. Minority rights as an essential element of the international human rights legal framework:States assume obligations and duties under international law to respect, to protect and to fulfil human rights, including minority rights. Minority Rights Group International (MRG) Deputy Director, Claire Thomas, writes this opinion piece for the Thomson Reuters News Foundation. or over positive discrimination.[2]. 31-35) (1990). Dealing efficiently with minority-majority relations in the aftermath of ethnic conflict is central to achieving a durable peace. E-mail Citation » International documents on minority rights 11 3.1 Pre-twentieth century agreements 11 3.2 The interwar period 12 3.3 The Cold War era 12 3.4 The post-Cold War years 16 3.5 Minority rights documents from non-state organizations 21 4. In other words, their aim is to ensure that persons belonging to a national minority enjoy effective equality with those persons belonging to the majority. 4. A summary of international standards 25 5. According to a definition offered in 1977 by Francesco Capotorti, Special Rapporteur of the United Nations Sub-Commission on Prevention of Discrimination and Protection of Minorities, a minority is: A group numerically inferior to the rest of the population of a State, in a non-dominant position, whose members - being nationals of the State - possess ethnic, religious or linguistic characteristics differing from those of the rest of the population and show, if only implicitly, a sense of solidarity, directed towards preserving their culture, traditions, religion or language.1/. 2. In this regard, the protection of national minorities is not only fundamental to enhance social cohesion in diverse societies, but also essential to achieve democratic security, sustainable development and peace in a context of instability. Definition of minority There is no common consent upon a definition of minority in international instruments. The issue of minority rights was first raised in 1814, at the Congress of Vienna, which discussed the fate of German Jews and especially of the Poles who were once again partitioned up. The collapse of the communist regimes in Central and Eastern Europe and the rise of ethnic nationalisms, followed by the violent conflict in former Yugoslavia, changed the situation. Relevant related mechanisms are, inter alia, the OSCE High Commissioner on National Minorities, theOffice of the United Nations of the High Commissioner of Human Rights, the UN Independent Expert on Minority Issues and the UN Forum on Minority Issues (former Working Group on Minorities). However, the League of Nations was dissolved in 1946. Minority rights are the normal individual rights as applied to members of racial, ethnic, class, religious, linguistic or gender and sexual minorities; and also the collective rights accorded to any minority group. In Britain, William Gladstone made the massacres of Bulgarians by the Ottoman Empire a major campaign issue and demanded international attention. The question often arises as to whether, for example, persons with disabilities, persons belonging to certain political groups or persons with a particular sexual orientation or identity (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender or intersexual persons) constitute minorities. A number of contemporary scholars are reluctant to use After World War II, minority rights received significantly less attention, with the notable exceptions of the United Nations Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (the Genocide Convention), and the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR), which includes minority rights protection under Article 27.

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