According to trafficking expert Louise Shelley, “Traffickers choose to trade in humans … because there are low start-up costs, minimal risks, high profits and large demand. Human trafficking is, paradoxically, a single thing—the violent exploitation of another human being for profit or personal gain—and many different things. 1.RECRUITMENT/ABDUCTION. The cases also demonstrate the wide range of industries where exploitation takes place. Human Rights First’s anti-trafficking campaign aims to disrupt the business of trafficking for sex and labor by helping policy makers and law enforcement shut down or disrupt trafficking networks: the organized crime networks, gangs and individual criminals who profit by enslaving other human beings and those who enable or facilitate this crime. Traffickers profit from this practice by controlling their victims and exploiting them for labor and/or sex. In keeping with the emphasis of this journal, we focus our examination on the trafficking of women and girls. * Message and data rates may apply. Who is likely to be perceived as complicit in their exploitation, or charged with a crime, or refused access to the legal system because they do not match the “good victim” image? Human traffickers prey on people who are hoping for a better life, lack employment opportunities, have an unstable home life, or have a history of sexual or physical abuse. We conclude with two topics that have been part of the public, academic, and policy debates on human trafficking: intracountry adoption (Gibbons) and brokered marriages (Yakushko & Rajan). Characteristics like physical profile or social aspects are mostly observed; also the age of the traffickers is important, their occupation/profession and manners of action in order to determine the person to accept their offer. . Polaris received $3.5 million through competitive funding through the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families, Grant # 90ZV0134-01-00. Location or setting alone cannot determine if trafficking has occurred: in any of these settings, a trafficked person can work alongside someone who has not been trafficked. For recruitment purposes, exploiters often use employment and travel agencies, or family and friendship connections. Human trafficking differs from but overlaps with a number of other issues (e.g., servile and forced marriage, illicit adoption, domestic violence, sexual abuse, forced labor). This movement can be across town, within a country’s borders, or across borders, and can take place by land, sea or air. Businesses in these industries have a unique chance to identify victims and report situations of trafficking. Contributors to this special issue emphasize supporting and utilizing the strength and resiliency of survivors. Some of these victims were subjected to force and coercion, while others were lured through fraud and false promises. The contributors to this issue raise questions that should be kept in the forefront when working with trafficking survivors. This special issue of Women & Therapy is devoted to an exploration of human trafficking as a complex human rights violation with many manifestations. Human trafficking is, paradoxically, a single thing—the violent exploitation of another human being for profit or personal gain—and many different things. There is simply no prototypical trafficking case and no prototypical victim of this crime. In spite of legal definitions there are still many gray areas plaguing research efforts, policy development, and community responses. Human trafficking operations often intersect or exist alongside legitimate businesses and require a number of other actors and specific conditions in order to operate without detection. In other cases, they are aware of how their business may be facilitating the conditions needed for the trafficking operations, and the profits they generate outweigh reservations they may have about their role. Human traffickers prey on people who are hoping for a better life, lack employment opportunities, have an unstable home life, or have a history of sexual or physical abuse. The victim worked seven days a week, for approximately 16 hours a day for virtually no pay. (, The invisible man: The conscious neglect of men and boys in the war on human trafficking, On “Sex trafficking and the exploitation of adolescents.”, Perfect victims and real survivors: The iconic victims in domestic human trafficking law, Task Force on Trafficking of Women and Girls. We do not favor or oppose any candidate for public office. Furthermore, by strengthening internal processes, policies and transparency, businesses have the opportunity to make it more difficult for traffickers to use their business for criminal activities like human trafficking. We follow with a unique study of issues facing children of trafficked women as they and their mothers reintegrate into their communities post-trafficking (Surtees). The traffickers threatened to harm victims’ families back at home if they attempted to escape. We use cookies to improve your website experience. The authors in this issue use the United Nations definition of human trafficking set out in the Protocol to Prevent, Suppress, and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children (United Nations, 2000), or the U.S. government definition set out in the Trafficking Victims Protection Act (TVPA, 2000). For example, how might stereotypes contribute both to heighten risk of trafficking, and to failure to recognize victimization of American Indian women, African American women, women with disabilities, or immigrant women (Bryant-Davis & Tummala-Narra, this issue)? Victims are recruited into slavery by fraud, force or coercion. In many cases, businesses are unaware of how their facilities or services are being used by traffickers. The exploiters of human trafficking include a wide range of criminals and criminal enterprises that organize, implement, and profit from trafficking human beings. Why? However, in the therapeutic setting it may not be necessary to determine definitively whether an individual has been trafficked, but instead be tuned into the themes of abuse, exploitation, complex trauma, resilience, and recovery. Finally, victims arrive at the location where their exploitation will take place, whether it is for commercial sex or labor. These cases portray a range of different kinds of exploiters, from solo operators to more organized criminal networks. Human Rights First is a premier institution devoted to the noblest of all causes.

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